Computer Network Topologies

Computer Network Topology describes the structure of a network or how a network is designed. This pattern is closely associated with the access methods and delivery media are used. Topology that is highly dependent with the geographic location of each device, the quality control required in the delivery of messages or communications, and the speed of data transmission.

Topology definition is divided into two, namely that show the physical topology of wiring positions are physically and logical topology logical topology that shows how a medium accessible by the host.

The physical topology is commonly used in building a network is :

Point to Point Topology

This network is a point-to-point network of the simplest but may be used widely. Once this network simple, that it is often not considered as a network but only a regular communication. In this case, the second node has a level position, so that any node can initiate and control the relationship in the network. Data sent from one node directly to another node as a receiver, for example between the terminals with the CPU.

Star Network Topology

In a star configuration, there is some equipment that will be connected to a computer center. Existing controls will be concentrated at one point, such as workload and adjust settings for existing resources. All links must be associated with the center if you want to distribute data to other destination nodes. In this case, when the center was down, then all the terminals will also be affected. Star network model is relatively simple, so widely used by the banking that usually has many branches that spread in various locations. With this star configuration, then all sorts of activities in the branch office it can be controlled and coordinated well. In addition, education also tend to use a star network is to control the activities of their students.

Excess Star Network Topology :
  • Damage to one channel will affect only the channel network and associated stations.
  • Including high-level security.
  • Resistant to traffic of a busy network.
  • Addition and subtraction station can be done easily.
Lack of Star Network Topology :
  • If the node was damaged, then the whole network is interrupted. Therefore it is necessary to prepare the backup node.
Computer Network TopologyFigure Star Network Topology

Ring Network Topology

In this network there are several devices are connected to each other and will eventually form the chart as well as a ring. Ring network does not have a point that acts as a center or data traffic, all nodes have the same level. The data sent will go through several nodes that arrive at the destination node. In presenting the data, the network can move in one or two directions. Nevertheless, the data continues to move in one direction in one time. First, there is a message that will be delivered from one point to another in one direction. If found the failure, for example, there is damage to the equipment available, existing data will be sent by way of a second, then the message is transmitted in the opposite direction, and could eventually end up at destination. Such a configuration is relatively more expensive when compared with the star network configuration. This is because, each node that will act as a computer that will handle any application at hand, and must be able to share resources on the existing network. In addition, this system is more suitable for systems that are not centralized (Decentralized-system), which is not required of a particular priority.

Computer Network TopologyFigure Ring Network Topology

Tree Network Topology

In tree networks, there are several levels of nodes. Center or a higher node level, another node can set a lower level. Data that is sent to the central node first. For example to move from the computer with "node-3" to a computer "node-7" as well as in the figure, the data must go through the "node-3, 5 and node-6" before the end of the "node-7".

Model the network advantages such tree is the formation of a group may be required at any time. For example, companies can form a group consisting of terminal accounts, as well as other groups formed for the sale terminals.

The weakness is, if the higher node then does not work, then another group who are below it eventually becomes ineffective. How a tree network is slow relative to.


Computer Network TopologyFigure Tree Network Topology

Bus Network Topology

Another configuration is known as a bus network, suitable for areas that are not too broad. Each computer (each node) will be connected with a communication cable through an interface. Each computer can communicate directly with computers or other equipment present in the network, in other words, all nodes have equal status. In this case, the network is not dependent on an existing computer in the center, so that if one device or one node is destroyed, the system can still operate. Each node has an existing address or nature itself. So to access the data from one node, the user or the user simply mentioning the address of the node in question.

Bus topology advantages is the development of a network or adding new workstations can be done easily without disrupting the other workstations.

Drawback of this topology is that if there is interference along the center of the entire cable network will be susceptible to interference.

Computer Network TopologyBus Network Topology

Plex Network Topology

Network is truly interactive, in which every node has the ability to directly access not only to computers, but also with equipment or other nodes. In general, this network has a form similar to a star network. Data organization using decentralization, is to perform maintenance, use the centralized facility.

Computer Network TopologyFigure Plex Network Topology

Logic Topology in general becoming divided into two types, namely :

a. Topology Broadcast

Simply described is a host that sends data to all other hosts on the network media.

Topology Token Passing

Set the data transmission to the host through the media by using the token that regularly rotate in the host. Host can only send data only if the host has a token. By this token, collision can be prevented.

Factors that need to receive consideration for the selection of topology is as follows :
* Cost
What systems are needed the most efficient in the organization.

* Speed
To what extent is the speed required in the system.

* Environment
Such as electricity or factors - other environmental factors, which affect the type of hardware used.

* Size
Up to how much the network size. Would require a network file server or a specific server.

* Connectivity
Are other users who use laptop computers to access the network from various locations. That is the system of the Computer Network Topologies, as a simulation you can see the video that I provided on the page above.


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